Dental crowns are typically used to cover and protect a tooth that has cracked, broken, or is significantly damaged by decay. The tooth is shaped to allow the crown to fit over the top and then the crown is bonded into place. Crowns are created to look like your teeth, and most people will never know the difference
Crowns are also used to restore dental implants. In this case, instead of being affixed to your own tooth, the restoration is attached to an implant, which has been surgically placed in the space where a tooth used to be. This allows us to replace missing teeth with restorations that both look and function like your own teeth.
Restorations are also used in cosmetic dentistry to cover and conceal a tooth that is severely damaged, didn’t develop properly, or has significant discoloration that can be corrected with tooth whitening.
Today’s restorations are aesthetic and blend in flawlessly with your own natural teeth. This is a huge improvement from previous restoration technology, which often left an unpleasant gray line right at the gumline. Today, most people will never know your secret!
Why Are Dental Crowns Needed?
A restoration may be needed in the following situations:
1. To protect a weak tooth (for instance, from decay) from breaking or to hold together parts of a cracked tooth
2. To restore an already broken tooth or a tooth that has been severely worn down
3. To cover and support a tooth with a large filling when there isn’t a lot of tooth left
4. To hold a dental bridge in place
5. To cover mis-shapened or severely discolored teeth
6. To cover a dental implant
7. To make a cosmetic modification
For children, a crown may be used on primary (baby) teeth in order to:
• Save a tooth that has been so damaged by decay that it can’t support a filling.
• Protect the teeth of a child at high risk for tooth decay, especially when a child has difficulty keeping up with daily oral hygiene.
• Decrease the frequency of general anesthesia for children unable because of age, behavior, or medical history to fully cooperate with the requirements of proper dental care.
In such cases, a pediatric dentist is likely to recommend a stainless steel restoration.
What Types Are Available?
Permanent restorations can be made from stainless steel, all metal (such as gold or another alloy), porcelain-fused-to-metal, all resin, or all ceramic.
• Stainless steel restorations are prefabricated restorations that are used on permanent teeth primarily as a temporary measure. The restoration protects the tooth or filling while a permanent crown is made from another material. For children, a stainless steel crown is commonly used to fit over a primary tooth that’s been prepared to fit it. The restoration covers the entire tooth and protects it from further decay. When the primary tooth comes out to make room for the permanent tooth, the crown comes out naturally with it. In general, stainless steel restorations are used for children’s teeth because they don’t require multiple dental visits to put in place and so are more cost- effective than custom-made restorations and prophylactic dental care needed to protect a tooth without a crown.
• Metals used in restorations include gold alloy, other alloys (for example, palladium), or a base-metal alloy (for example, nickel or chromium). Compared with other crown types, less tooth structure needs to be removed with metal crowns, and tooth wear to opposing teeth is kept to a minimum. Metal crowns withstand biting and chewing forces well and probably last the longest in terms of wear down. Also, metal crowns rarely chip or break. The metallic color is the main drawback. Metal crowns are a good choice for out-of-sight molars.
• Porcelain-fused-to-metal dental crowns can be color matched to your adjacent teeth (unlike the metallic crowns). However, more wearing to the opposing teeth occurs with this crown type compared with metal or resin crowns. The crown’s porcelain portion can also chip or break off. Next to all-ceramic crowns, porcelain-fused-to-metal crowns look most like normal teeth. However, sometimes the metal underlying the crown’s porcelain can show through as a dark line, especially at the gum line and even more so if your gums recede. These crowns can be a good choice for front or back teeth.
• All-resin dental crowns are less expensive than other crown types. However, they wear down over time and are more prone to fractures than porcelain-fused-to-metal crowns.
• All-ceramic or all-porcelain dental crowns provide better natural color match than any other crown type and may be more suitable for people with metal allergies. However, they are not as strong as porcelain-fused-to-metal crowns and they wear down opposing teeth a little more than metal or resin crowns. All-ceramic crowns are a good choice for front teeth.
• Temporary versus permanent. Temporary crowns can be made in your dentist’s office, whereas permanent crowns are made in a dental laboratory. Temporary crowns are made of acrylic or stainless steel and can be used as a temporary restoration until a permanent crown is constructed by a lab.
• Zirconia or milled crown – which are digitally constructed either in an office that has the software and hardware to produce them or in a dental lab. Dental offices that have the software and hardware have the ability to produce a crown in one visit with no need for a temporary. These crowns require no impression.